RECIPES from Joanne Pryhorocki Potter

Copyright 1997 by Joanne Potter

I'm sharing with you the recipes I gathered from relatives and friends when I visited Ukraine. I first learned about existing relatives in the fall of 1993 and planned a trip to meet them in 1994, but due to my father's illness we delayed the trip until May of 1995.

I found the unique summer kitchens very interesting and the women treated me as one of their own. I asked questions about the various foods they prepared and made sure I took notes so that I could try my hand at making the traditional foods when I returned home. The women were very willing to share their cooking secrets and even gave me my turn in the kitchen to prepare for the whole family the version of their bread dough holubtsi recipe that we make in America.

My relatives gave me the ingredients but not the amounts and told me to just make enough for however many people were expected. They made it sound so easy, and it was -- for them. For me it was a real challenge to work with the recipes to get the right measurements for making a tasty dish. I had another challenge with the metric system, since I'm familiar with only our basic measurements.

The following recipes also include some from American relatives who originally came from Ukraine or are of Ukrainian heritage:


SOUPS

Potato Soup
Genya Prihorodska, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

about 2 to 4 quarts meat broth (like from roast or chicken)
4-6 cups cubed potatoes
1/2 to 3/4 cup parsley, chopped
1/2 to 3/4 cup green onion tops, chopped
salt, pepper to taste
1 cup cream

Use desired amount of the broth for however much you want to make. Add cubed potatoes, parsley, green onion tops and cook until done. Just before serving, add some cream, salt and pepper and serve. For variation, add some fresh dill weed.

Clear Soup with Vushka
Genya Prihorodska, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

Vushka are tiny varenyky about the size of a walnut, joined together at their two corners. This particular shape gives them a peculiar resemblance to tiny ears from which the name "vushka" is derived. They are filled with mushroom, meat or fish and served as a soup accompaniment to clear broth or borsch.

For the vushka:
2 cups flour
1/2 cup water
1 egg
1/8 teaspoon salt

chicken broth, amount you want to serve
chopped onion
oil
salt and pepper

Make dough for vushka as you would for pyrohy, working it until it forms a ball. Roll the dough out and cut out tiny rounds with a shot glass. Fill with meat, mushroom, or fish mixture. Seal the edges. Turn opposite ends in toward the center and pinch together.

Use amount of broth for desired quantity of soup. Add some chopped onion that has been sauteed in a small amount of oil or meat drippings and salt and pepper to taste. Simmer onions in broth for a few minutes, then add 3 or 4 vushka to each serving of soup and cook a little more.

Serve immediately.

Borsch
Stacia Kabanuk Pryhorocki, Milton-Freewater, Oregon U.S.A.
Stacia is my mother. Her mother was from Tarascha in the Kyiv Oblast, Central Ukraine and her father was from Chaplynka in the Cherkasy Oblast in Central Ukraine. Some Ukrainian folks call this Red Borsch because of the beets in it. I grew up on this soup recipe and still make it almost weekly. Serve with warm bread and butter and you have a very good meal.

1 cup chopped fresh beets
1 cup chopped fresh carrots
2 cups green beans, cut into 1 inch pieces
3 or 4 medium potatoes, cubed
1 quart chopped or shredded cabbage
1 pint fresh or canned tomatoes, chopped
1/2 cup chopped onion
1/2 cup fresh dill weed, chopped
salt to taste
2 tablespoons finely chopped onion
2 tablespoons oil
2 tablespoons flour
cream
minced garlic, to your taste

Put the chopped beets, carrots, and green beans into a 6-quart kettle with about 2 quarts of water and cook a little while. Then add the rest of the vegetables, dill, and salt and cook until vegetables are tender, adding more water for the desired consistency.

Saute finely chopped onion in oil in a small frying pan and add flour. Stir until smooth. This is used as a thickener; add this to borsch when vegetables are cooked.

Add some cream and the freshly chopped garlic and cook for about 5 minutes more. Taste and add more salt if necessary. Serve.

Variations: You can use a meat broth or cook a soup bone in water first or add meat to the above. You can also substitute dried beans for the green beans.

Kapusnyak
Stacia Kabanuk Pryhorocki, Milton-Freewater, Oregon, U.S.A.

1 package oxtail pieces (about 2 to 3 pounds)
1 quart sauerkraut
1 quart cabbage
1 cup cubed carrots
2 to 3 cups cooked potatoes and liquid
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup cream of wheat cereal
2 to 3 cloves garlic, minced

Wash oxtail and put in cold water in a 6-quart kettle. Bring to a boil and then turn down to simmer. Spoon off the scum or foam until no more appears. Cook the oxtail until it is almost done. Next, drain the sauerkraut and squeeze out remaining liquid from it, reserving the juice. Chop the sauerkraut and cabbage well. Add sauerkraut, cabbage, and carrots to the kettle and cook until vegetables are tender.

Cook potatoes in a separate pan. When they are done, mash them in their own liquid. Add this to the soup kettle. Cook together until flavors are blended. When almost done, stir in cream of wheat to thicken the soup. Stir frequently since cream of wheat tends to stick easily. Add the minced garlic and cook a few minutes more. If the soup isn't sour enough, add some of the reserved sauerkraut brine.

*You can also use stew meat or ribs in place of oxtail, but I have found that the oxtail gives it a superb flavor.


EGGS

Breakfast Eggs
Emma Tsimbolinets, Kyiv, Central Ukraine

Emma is the wife of our guide, interpreter and chauffeur. She would rise very early to cook our meals for us and see to it that we didn't want for anything. For breakfast she fixed eggs, traditional Ukrainian sausage, boiled, espresso type coffee, a vegetable platter, toasted bread, cooked oatmeal, followed by fruit. We were offered alcoholic beverages for breakfast also.

oil
eggs
fresh dill weed
salt

Oil skillet. Put eggs into skillet, being careful not to break the yolks. Place a lid on the skillet and cook to almost done. Place fresh dill weed on top of eggs and replace lid allowing to steam a little.

Serve.

Deviled Eggs
Polina Prihorodska, Okopy, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

about 12 eggs
chicken liver, from one or two chickens, cooked and ground
chicken gizzard, from one or two chickens, cooked and ground
1/4 cup finely chopped onions, sauteed
about 1 teaspoon vinegar
salt and pepper to taste

Boil eggs. Cool. Slice in half lengthwise and remove yolks. Mash yolks and mix well with remaining ingredients. Fill egg white halves with this mixture.


MAIN DISHES

Cousin Marta Honchorova making Varenyky (Pyrohy) in her mother's summer kitchen in Bilivtsi.

Pyrohy (Varenyky)
Genya Prihorodska, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

Dough:
6 cups flour
2 teaspoons salt
2 cups water

Mix dough ingredients until they form a ball. Roll out dough and cut out small pyrohy. I cut the dough out with the top of a small drinking glass, put a spoonful of filling in the center, fold over so that edges meet, and crimp the edges.

Fill with desired meat mixture -- Genya basically used pork. Other fillings can be used, such as potato, cheese, or sauerkraut. Drop pyrohy into boiling salted water and cook until they float to the top. Take pyrohy out and drain. Pour some oil in which some onions have been sauteed over the pyrohy, coating them well so that they don't stick together.

Emma's Dough for Varenyky
Emma Tsimbolinets, Kyiv, Central Ukraine

Small (and larger) batch
2 (or 6) cups flour
1/2 (or 1 1/2) teaspoon salt
1/3 (or 2) cups milk
1 (or 2) eggs
* 1/2 (or) teaspoon baking powder

*From listening to the camcorder cassette when Emma made her dough, it sounds like she says she adds soda to her dough. I am not sure, so I have not added it here. My own mother uses baking powder and a cousin of mine uses cream of tartar.

Roll out dough to about 1/4 inch thickness and cut out rounds with the top of a drinking glass. Fill with your choice of fillings and seal the edges. Drop into boiling salted water and cook until they float to the top.

Kathryn's Dough for Pyrohy (Varenyky)
Kathryn Basaraba, Springfield, Oregon, U.S.A.

For a smaller batch of pyrohy, divide all the ingredients in half.

Dry Ingredients:
10 cups flour
1 cup instant potato flakes
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 tablespoon salt

Wet Ingredients
4 eggs
2 cups water
2 cups scalded milk
1/2 cup oil

Mix dry and wet ingredients and knead well. Let the dough rest for about 10 minutes. Roll out dough and cut out into desired shape (round or square). Fill with desired filling. Boil in hot, salted water.

Fillings for Pyrohy (Varenyky)
Joanne Pryhorocki Potter, Kennewick, Washington, U.S.A.

Cheese filling: Squeeze the whey out of dry cottage cheese. Add eggs, one at a time, using just enough eggs to make the mixture slightly sticky. Add salt.

Potato filling: Cook potatoes in a kettle and mash. Add onions that have been sauted in oil and some salt.

Sauerkraut filling: Rinse, squeeze dry and chop fine 3 cups of sauerkraut. Chop an onion, cook in oil, add the sauerkraut to it and fry slightly. Salt it. Cook over low heat until sauerkraut is tender and the flavors are blended. DO NOT OVERCOOK!

Mushroom filling:
1 small onion chopped fine
2 - 3 tablespoons butter
2 cups chopped cooked mushrooms
salt and pepper
2 egg yolks

Cook onion in butter until tender. Add mushrooms and cook for about 10 minutes. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Remove from the stove and add the egg yolks. Chopped dill may be added for flavor if desired. Cool the mixture thoroughly before using for pyrohy filling.

Meat filling: Prepare any leftover meat by grinding it. Take 2 cups ground meat and add 1 tablespoon grated onion that has been cooked in 2 tablespoons butter until it is tender. Combine onion with the meat. Moisten the mixture with a rich gravy or cream sauce or egg and then season to taste with salt and pepper.

Plum Varenyky (Pyrohy) Made With Potato Dough
Joanne Pryhorocki Potter, Kennewick, Washington, U.S.A.

1 cup cold mashed potatoes
2 teaspoons melted butter
2 eggs, slightly beaten
1 teaspoon salt
2 cups flour
plums, pitted
sugar
cinnamon

Combine potatoes with butter, eggs, and salt. Add flour and enough water to moisten mixture sufficiently and make a soft dough. Knead lightly, cover, let stand for 10 minutes. Cut dough into 2 parts for easier handling. Shape each part into a roll about 1 1/2 " in diameter. Cut into 1/2 inch pieces. Flatten each piece and wrap around a plum filled with a mixture of sugar and cinnamon. Seal the edges firmly. Drop into rapidly boiling water and cook until they are puffy and float to the top. Serve with cream or browned buttered crumbs or a sprinkling of sugar.

Cabbage Leaf Holubtsi
Polina Prihorodska, Okopy, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

1/2 to 3/4 cup onions, chopped and sauteed
oil (Polina used meat drippings)
1 cup meat, ground (Polina used pork)
4 cups cooked rice
1 teaspoon salt
1 large head cabbage
1 1/2 cups tomato juice
1/2 cup cream or sour cream

Saute chopped onions in meat drippings and add to cooked ground pork and rice. Sprinkle with salt. Roll this mixture up into a wilted cabbage leaf and place into pan. Cover this with tomato juice and cream or sour cream and meat drippings. Cook until done. Serve.

Bread Dough Holubtsi
Joanne Pryhorocki Potter, Kennewick, Washington, U.S.A

Ingredient quantities are not given here, but I usually make a very large batch of holubtsi because they are so delicious. I use enough dough to make four loaves of bread and use 2 to 3 quarts of heavy cream for the sauce. For a smaller amount of holubtsi, a rule of thumb is that you'll need a little more than 2 cups of cream per each quantity of dough equal to one loaf of bread. Use plenty of dill weed and green onion tops -- you should be able to taste these flavors in your holubtsi.

For the holubtsi:
bread dough
beet or sorrel leaves
fresh dill weed
fresh green onion tops
salt

For the cream sauce:
heavy cream
fresh dill weed, finely chopped
fresh green onion tops, finely chopped
salt

Make your favorite bread dough. While this is rising, pick and wash some beet leaves or sorrel leaves and dry them . They will need to wilt slightly. Next, chop your fresh dill weed and fresh green onion tops. Add some salt to it and mix well.

Place a large roaster or baking pan with lid on a table and line the bottom and sides with the beet or sorrel leaves that just didn't look as good as the rest of them. You may need several pans, depending on how much you want to make.

To assemble: Take a piece of dough about the size of a golf ball and stretch it out on a beet or sorrel leaf. Next put the chopped dill weed and chopped green onion top mixture on top of this dough and roll up the dough and leaf together. Place the rolled holubtsi in your roaster or baking pan and continue rolling holubtsi and lining the pan with them until one layer is completed. The rolls should be side by side, covering the bottom of the pan. Sprinkle some chopped fresh dill weed and chopped fresh green onions over the first layer and then make another layer of rolls. When you have two layers of rolls in your pan, cover them and let them rise in a warm place. Continue making holubtsi until all your dough and ingredients are used up.

Now start your cream sauce: Pour cream into pan on stove and add fresh dill weed and fresh green onion tops finely chopped. Add some salt. Cook this on medium to low heat until it has cooked away to about one fourth or half the amount and is slightly thickened. Stir frequently so it doesn't burn. This should take about an hour or so at low to medium heat. When the holubtsi have risen to double their size, bake them like you would bread. When done, let cool slightly and then pull them apart from each other and place in a pan or several pans. Pour the cream sauce over them and toss them gently. You do not want to make them swim, just coat them lightly. Now serve and enjoy. I like mine best after they have sat at room temperature for about 2 hours with the cream sauce over them. This gives a chance for the sauce to soak in. These are most delicious.


MEATS

Ukrainian Sausage
Genya Prihorodska, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

20 lb. pork butt, bone removed
5 tablespoons salt
1 tablespoon black pepper
6 to 8 cloves garlic, ground

Cut meat into bite size pieces and coat with the seasonings. Add 1 quart water. Mix well and put through meat grinder. You can either shape into patties or stuff mixture into casings then boil or smoke them. Package in 1 or 2-pound packages and freeze.

If you boil casings, simmer for about 20 minutes and serve as a main dish item. If you prefer to smoke them, hickory wood chips are fantastic and it takes about 4 hours on a low heat.

Chicken in Cream with Dill
Stacia Kabanuk Pryhorocki, Milton-Freewater, Oregon, U.S.A.

2 chickens, cut up
1 medium onion, chopped
1 to 2 pints cream
dill weed, to your taste
1-2 cups water
1/2 teaspoon salt

Place ingredients in baking dish and cook in 350 degree oven for 45 minutes to 1 hour.


VEGETABLES

Vegetable Platter
Emma Tsimbolinets, Kyiv, Central Ukraine

2 good sized leaves of leaf lettuce
1 cucumber, unpeeled and diagonally cut (as for stir frying)
1 or 2 tomatoes, depending on size
6 green onions
3 or 4 radishes
salt
fresh dill, small sprigs to decorate top

Place a lettuce leaf across each end of an oval platter. Next place cucumber pieces on top of both lettuce leaves. Add some wedge cuts of tomato next to the cucumbers, place some green onions across the middle of the plate, add some radishes and sprinkle with salt and fresh dill weed over the top.

A variation: put cucumbers and tomato wedges on a bed of leaf lettuce on an oval plate with fresh dill weed and salt sprinkled over the top. This version was served for breakfast.

Marta's Potatoes
Marta Honchorova, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

potatoes
cream
fresh dill weed
green onion tops
salt

Partially boil potatoes and drain liquid. Cut potatoes into large chunks or sections and put them back into the pan. Pour cream over potatoes, chopped fresh dill weed, chopped fresh green onion tops, and some salt. Cook for a couple minutes on low heat and serve. Delicious !!

Polina's Potatoes
Polina Prihorodska, Okopy, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

potatoes
pork fat or bacon
garlic, finely chopped or minced
onions, chopped and sauteed
fresh dill weed, chopped
salt

Partially boil potatoes, peel, cut into chunks, and put back into kettle. Fry pork fat or bacon, remove from grease and finely chop. Reserve meat drippings. Add pork pieces and some reserved grease to the potatoes.

Saute lightly in grease the chopped onions and add to the potatoes. Mince or finely chop fresh garlic and add to potatoes Toss, so as not to smash the potatoes. Add some salt and fresh dill weed, toss, let steam briefly, and serve. Absolutely delicious!


SALADS
Tomato and Cucumber Salad
Genya Prihorodska, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

2 medium sized tomatoes, cubed or cut into wedges
1 or 2 medium cucumbers, unpeeled and sliced
green onion tops, chopped finely to make 3 or 4 cups
1/2 cup thick cream or sour cream
salt to taste

Mix vegetables together and add salt and some cream and mix. Serve. Delicious!

This is very good with some added fresh dill weed, chopped. If you're counting fat grams, you can use fat free sour cream in place of the thick cream, but it just doesn't taste as good.

Cabbage Salad
Polina Prihorodska, Okopy, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

1 head of cabbage, finely chopped
1 to 2 cups green onion tops, finely chopped
1/2 to 3/4 cup fresh dill weed, finely chopped
1 cup finely chopped fresh parsley
oil
vinegar
salt
sugar
garlic cloves, crushed

Mix all together and let sit at least an hour before serving. This gives the flavors time to blend. Very tasty. Habit forming even.

*Variation: A nice wine vinegar is also very tasty. I used red wine vinegar and red wine vinegar with garlic.


BREADS

Anna's Bread
Anna Prihorodska, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

butter (1/4 pound or 1/2 cup)
sugar (1/2 cup)
salt (1/8 cup)
yeast (5 teaspoons)
flour (16 cups total)
eggs (3 to 4)
milk or water (4 to 5 cups total)

Anna says to use as much flour as you think you will need, then add the rest of the ingredients. Her batter was very thin and the dough was very sticky. The amounts you see in parentheses are my own from trial and error since I've come home. I've tried to duplicate what Anna made to the best of my ability.

I suggest that you use these instructions:

Into a large pan, put 3 cups hot water, the butter, sugar and salt. Let this dissolve and then add 1 cup cold water. Your mixture should now be a little above lukewarm. In a separate bowl, put the yeast and 1/2 cup lukewarm water. When the yeast has risen slightly, add it to the above. This takes about 10 minutes. Mix well and add about 8 cups of the flour. After you have worked in the 8 cups of flour, add 6 or 7 more cups and knead to a smooth but not sticky dough. Let the dough rise, punch down, and let rise again. Form into loaves, buns, or whatever form you wish. This makes enough dough for 4 loaves of bread.

Bake at 400 degrees for 15 minutes; turn down heat to 350 degrees and bake for an other 45 minutes. Turn out on a wire rack and cool.

Garlic Buns
Stacia Kabanuk Pryhorocki, Milton-Freewater, Oregon, U.S.A.

Make regular bread dough and after the second rising, form into small buns. Put closely together in a baking pan. Let rise until doubled in size. Bake in 375 degree oven for about 25 minutes. Cool buns.

The dip is what makes these garlic buns: Peel 2 or 3 large cloves of garlic and chop into small pieces. Put into a cup and sprinkle with just enough salt to help grind the garlic. Now use a wooden spoon or mortar and pestle to grind the garlic and salt together. Saute 1 to 2 tablespoons minced onion in 2 tablespoons oil and add to the garlic mixture. Fill the cup with boiling water and mix the garlic, salt, onion and water well. Dip the baked buns into this delicious dip, stirring well before each dip.

Polanetsi
Axana Malkowski Pryhorocki, Milton-Freewater, Oregon, U.S.A.

These buns with a cottage cheese, dill and green onion filling are a favorite of my father and me. I grew up eating these. Absolutely delicious!

Filling:
1 pound dry curd cottage cheese
1/2 cup chopped onions
1 tablespoon oil
1/2 to 3/4 cup fresh dill weed
3/4 to 1 cup finely chopped green onion tops
2 eggs, beaten
1/4 cup cream
1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon salt

Drain cottage cheese, pressing out all liquid. Press cheese curds with a fork to smooth out the lumps. Saute onions in oil. Add onions, dill weed, and green onions to the cottage cheese. Combine with eggs and cream. Add salt to your taste.

Make enough white bread dough for two loaves. When it has risen the first time, form into balls the size of golf balls. Place these on a towel on the table and let them rise again. When they have risen, roll them out, one at a time, forming a long oval (about 6 inches by 3 inches). Cut small slits into the ends of the dough, like so: (| |). Put one heaping tablespoon of filling into the center of the dough. Turn the ends in toward the center, pulling one cut through the other, and making sure that a hole is left exposed in the center so the filling is visible. Let rise on your baking pan, being sure to give enough space so they aren't crowded. Brush with egg and water mixture before baking.

Bake at 350 degrees fahrenheit for about 30 minutes, until golden.

Makes about 20 polanetsi

.

Crisp Crusted Bread
from the cookbook "Traditional Ukrainian Cookery" by Savella Stechishin, published by Trident Press Ltd., Winnipeg, Canada 1975

2 1/4 teaspoons yeast
1 cup boiling water
1 tablespoon oil
1 tablespoon salt
1 tablespoon sugar
1 cup cold water
6 cups flour
2 egg whites, slightly beaten

Soften the yeast in lukewarm water as directed on the package. To the boiling water, add oil, salt, sugar, cold water. Combine with softened yeast. Mix in half of flour and add the slightly beaten egg whites then beat the mixture thoroughly. Stir in remaining flour and knead until dough no longer sticks to your hands. Knead on floured surface until smooth and satiny. Put in bowl, cover and let rise until double in bulk, punch down and let rise again.

Divide dough into two parts and make each into a round loaf. Place the loaves far apart on a greased baking sheet. Brush loaves with water to prevent drying. Cut slits in top with knife and brush with water. Allow loaves to rise until double in bulk. Heat oven to 400 degrees fahrenheit and place a pie plate half filled with boiling water on the bottom shelf of the oven. This bread requires steam for crustiness.

Bake at 400 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 minutes, then lower heat to 350 degrees Fahrenheit and continue baking for another 45 minutes. About 5 minutes before the bread is done, brush the loaves with a glazing mixture of 1 beaten egg white and 2 tablespoons of cold water, or with water alone.


DESSERTS

Compote
Marta Honchorova, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

Compote is sweetened, stewed fruit, cooked carefully to keep the fruit as whole as possible. Very often wine or brandy is used for flavoring. Compotes have a heavier syrup than stewed fruit. Modern homemakers, however, prefer to use less sugar.

Berry Compote: This compote requires no cooking and is a more modern version of compote since it doesn't use lemons, which are hard to get in many areas of Ukraine.

1 pound fresh berries (strawberries or raspberries)
3/4 cup sugar
1 cup water

Wash and drain the fruit. Bring the sugar and water to a boil. Pour the boiling syrup over the fruit, and let it stand for several hours before eating.

Cherry Compote

1 pound fresh cherries
1 cup water
3/4 cup sugar
3 tablespoons lemon juice

Wash, drain, and pit the cherries. Save about 10 cherry stones. Crack the stones and boil them in the water. Then add the sugar and lemon juice and cook for 5 minutes. Put the cherries into the syrup and simmer gently for about 10 minutes. Strain the cherries and pits and discard the pits. Cook the syrup until fairly thick. Pour over the cherries and allow the compote to cool. Serve.

Cherry Crepes
Genya Prihorodska, Bilivtsi, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

1 cup flour
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 and 1/4 cups milk
2 eggs
2 tablespoons butter
oil

Mix together the flour, salt, milk and beat until smooth. Add the eggs and mix well. Add the melted butter and mix again. Let this batter stand for a while. Brush the bottom of a frying pan with oil and put over medium heat until it is just hot but not smoking. Pour about 2 tablespoons crepe batter into pan and quickly tilt the pan in all directions so that the batter covers the pan with a thin film. Fry for about 1 minute. Lift the edge of the crepe to test it for doneness. The crepe is ready to be flipped when it can be shaken loose from the pan.

Flip the crepe and cook for about 30 seconds on the other side. (This side of the crepe is usually a little spotted brown and is the side the filling is put on.) As each crepe is done, spread the filling over the inside and fold the first two sides over each other and then the other two sides over each other. Place the finished crepe carefully on a plate. Keep doing this until all the crepes are made. It is easier to make with two people working. One makes the crepes, one fills the crepes.

Use home canned pie cherries that have been drained of liquid for the filling.

Pampushky
Yohenia Kryvoruchka, Okopy, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

Dough:
1 cup sugar
1 package yeast
1 quart warm water
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup butter
5 eggs
flour

Dissolve 1 teaspoon sugar into 1/4 cup warm water and sprinkle the yeast over it. Let it stand for about 10 minutes. Stir this well and then combine it with the water, salt, butter, remaining sugar, and well beaten eggs. Let it rise two times, punching down between risings. Roll the dough out to about 1/4 inch thickness and cut out circles with the top of a drinking glass. Fill each round with 1 teaspoon poppy seed filling. Seal the edges and let these rise for about 30 minutes. Deep fry.

Poppy Seed Filling:

2 cups poppy seeds
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1 cup sugar

Steam the poppy seeds, drain and grind them. Mix with the rest of the ingredients. (Or substitute prepared canned poppy seed.) Alternate Dough for Pampushky:

1/2 cup sugar
5 teaspoons yeast
2 cups milk
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup butter
2 eggs
6 cups flour

Prepare same as above recipe.


RELISHES AND PICKLES

Red Relish
Polina Prihorodska, Okopy, Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine

This recipe has been slightly adapted to American tastes and method of preparation.

3 kilograms tomatoes (about 6 1/2 pounds)
1 kilogram gram red sweet peppers (about 2 1/4 pounds)
300 grams green peppers (about 3/4 pound)
300 grams carrots (about 3/4 pound)
200 grams garlic (about 1/2 pound), peeled
salt to taste
1.2 liters vinegar (5 cups)
3/4 liter sugar (3 cups)

Put vegetables through a meat grinder. Mix thoroughly and salt to taste. Mix in vinegar and sugar and turn into a large kettle. Simmer, covered, on low heat for three hours, stirring occasionally. Put into jars, seal and process by hot water bath for about 10 minutes.

Fresh Dill Pickles
Axana Malkowski Pryhorocki, Milton-Freewater, Oregon, U.S.A.

Grandma's pickles were always a specialty we looked forward to.

1 gallon jar
2 stalks dill weed with heads that have seeds, but are still green
cucumbers to fill jar
several cloves of garlic
5 tablespoons of salt (my mother used 3 for lower-salt pickles)
water

Into jar place 1 stalk of dill weed complete with head. Layer cucumbers into jar and add garlic cloves which you have cut in half. Use as much garlic as you want. I generally use about 8 to 10 cloves per gallon. Mix the salt with a quart of water until the salt dissolves. Add to the gallon of cucumbers. Use enough additional water to fill the gallon jar. Place another stalk of dill weed on the top of the cucumbers and place a saucer over the top of the gallon jar. Let this sit on your counter in the kitchen or in a warm place for 3 to 5 days before they are ready to eat. The longer they sit, the more sour they become.

14 Day Sweet Pickles
Axana Malkowski Pryhorocki, Milton-Freewater, Oregon, U.S.A.

Into a clean stone jar, put 2 gallons of cucumbers, washed and sliced lengthwise. Dissolve 2 cups salt in 1 gallon of boiling water and pour over the cucumbers. Let this stand for 1 week. On the 8th day, drain, then pour 1 gallon of boiling water over the cucumbers and let this stand 24 hours.

On the 9th day, drain the liquid and pour 1 gallon of boiling water over the cucumbers to which has been added 1 tablespoon of powdered alum. Let this stand 24 hours. On the following day, or 10th day, drain again and pour 1 gallon boiling water over the cucumbers and let stand 24 hours more. Drain.

On the next (11th) day, make the pickling mixture:

5 pints vinegar, boiling hot
6 cups sugar
1/2 ounce celery seed
1 ounce stick cinnamon

Mix ingredients together and bring to a boil. Pour brine over the cucumbers and let stand a day. On each of the following three days, drain off the liquid and add a cup of sugar (thus adding a total of 3 more cups of sugar). Reheat the liquid to boiling, and pour it back over the cucumbers. On the third and final reheating, pack the pickles into sterilized jars, fill with the hot liquid, and seal. (I believe our current canning instructions now say to water bath the pickles for a few minutes for safety. Check your canning books for the time tables.)


BEVERAGES

Choke Cherry Wine
Mikhail Ivanovich Tsimbolinets, Kyiv, Central Ukraine

Mikhail was our guide, translator and chauffeur. He assured us that this wine was mild enough for a baby to drink. It was absolutely delicious. He brewed his wine out on his 8th floor balcony.

gallon jar
1/2 to 3/4 gallon choke cherries
sugar

Fill a gallon jar one half to three quarters full of fresh choke cherries and then pour granulated sugar over the top of the cherries, so that a three-inch layer of sugar covers them. Let this sit for about one to two months. Pour off the wine, strain, and serve. It never lasts long enough to bottle, but if you do have any leftover wine, store it in the refrigerator.


If you have any questions or comments on these recipes, please e-mail Joanne Pryhorocki Potter at jpp2211@charter.net.